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Citations: APA

A quick guide to three citation styles

More APA Resources

Overview

In writing a paper there are two types of citations you need to use: in-text citations and reference list citations. In-text citations will be in parenthesis throughout the paper anytime you quote or paraphrase from a source. The reference list citations come at the end of the paper on a "references" page, which can also be called a "works cited" or "bibliography."

Below are examples of reference list citations and in-text citations for commonly cited source types (books, book chapters, and articles). If you are using a type of source not covered here, check out the Purdue Owl. It is a comprehensive guide to creating MLA citations. Also, don't hesitate to ask a librarian. We are happy to help!

Reference List Citations

How to cite a book

Template: Lastname, F. M. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Publisher Name. DOI (if available)

Example: Welch, J. (1994). Killing Custer: the Battle of the Little Bighorn and the fate of the Plains Indians. W.W. Norton.

How to cite a book chapter

Template: Lastname, F. M. & Lastname, F. M. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In E. E. Editor & F. F. Editor (Eds.), Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle (pp. pages of chapter). Publisher. DOI (if available)

Example: Wall, C. (2011). Stranger at home: James Baldwin on what it means to be an American. In C. Kaplan & B. Schwarz (Eds.), James Baldwin: America and beyond, (pp. 33-138). University of Michigan Press.

How to cite a scholarly journal article

Template: Lastname, F. M. & Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Vol.(Issue), page numbers. DOI

Example: Ngai, S. (2015) Visceral abstractions. GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies, 21(1), pp. 33-63. https://www.muse.jhu.edu/article/566788.

How to cite a newspaper/magazine article

Template: Lastname, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of article. Title of Publication. URL

Example: Garza, C. R. (2021, March). Sonar wildly: On the trail of Gloria Anzaldúa. The Baffler. Retrieved October 20, 2021, from https://thebaffler.com/salvos/sonar-wildly-rivera-garza. Accessed 20 October 2021.

In-Text Citations

Every in-text citation requires two pieces of information: an author's name and a year. The year should always follow immediately after the author's name. If you are directly quoting from a source then you will need to include a page number as well.

Direct Quotations

The author's name can either be in the body of your paper such as:

The Cold War, Wall (2011) writes of Baldwin's career "necessarily shaped the reception of his work" (p. 36).

Or the author's name can appear in the parenthesis after the quote such as:

The Cold War "necessarily shaped the reception" of Baldwin's work (Wall, 2011, p. 36).

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing it is not necessary to include the page number.

With the author's name in the body of the text:

Wall (2011) suggests that the Cold War played a big part in the reception Baldwin's writing received. 

With the author's name in the parenthetical:

The Cold War played a big part in the reception Baldwin's writing received (Wall, 2011).