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Citations: Chicago

A quick guide to three citation styles

More Chicago Resources

Overview

In writing a paper there are two types of citations you need to use: in-text citations and bibliographic citations. When using Chicago Style the in-text citations are numbered notes throughout the paper. Each number will correspond to a footnote or endnote with a citation. The citation in the note will correspond to a full bibliographic citation at the end of the paper on a "bibliography" page, which can also be called a "works cited" or "reference list."

Below are examples of bibliographic citations and note citations for commonly cited source types (books, book chapters, and articles). If you are using a type of source not covered here, check out the Purdue Owl. It is a comprehensive guide to creating Chicago citations. Also, don't hesitate to ask a librarian. We are happy to help!

Bibliography and Note Citations

Whenever you directly quote or paraphrase a source you need to include a note. You will place a superscript number at the end of the sentence or clause with either paraphrasing or direct quoting in it. The number will correspond to either a footnote or endnote with a citation. Footnotes will appear at the bottom of the page while endnotes will appear at the end of the paper. Each citation in a footnote/endnote will correspond to a citation in your bibliography.

The differences between the Note citation and the Bibliography citation are subtle, so it is important to pay careful attention!

How to cite a book

Note Citation

Template: Number of Note. First name Last name, Title of Book (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), Page(s).

Example: 1. James Welch, Killing Custer: the Battle of the Little Bighorn and the fate of the Plains Indians (New York: W.W. Norton, 1994), 46.

Bibliography Citation

Template: Last name, First name. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication.

Example: Welch, James. Killing Custer: the Battle of the Little Bighorn and the fate of the Plains Indians. New York: W.W. Norton, 1994.

How to cite a book chapter

Note Citation

Template: Number of Note. First name Last name, "Title of Essay/Chapter," in Title of Collection, ed(s). Editor's Name(s), (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), Page(s).

Example: 2. Cheryl Wall, "Stranger at Home: James Baldwin on What It Means To Be an American," in James Baldwin: America and Beyond, eds. by Cora Kaplan and Bill Schwarz (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2011), 120.

Bibliography Citation

Template: Last name, First name. "Title of Essay/Chapter." Title of Collection, edited by Editor's Name(s), Page Range. Place of Publication, Publisher, Year.

Example: Wall, Cheryl. "Stranger at Home: James Baldwin on What It Means To Be an American." In James Baldwin: America and Beyond, edited by Cora Kaplan and Bill Schwarz, 33-138. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2011.

How to cite an article

Note Citation

Template: Number of Note. First Name Last Name. "Title of Article," Title of Journal Volume Number, Issue Number (Year): Page(s), doi/url (if online).

Example: 3. Sianne Ngai, "Visceral Abstractions," GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies 21, no. 1 (2015): 55-56. muse.jhu.edu/article/566788.

Bibliography Citation

Template: Last Name, First Name. "Title of Essay." Title of Journal Volume Number, Issue Number (Year): Page Range. doi/url.

Example: Ngai, Sianne. "Visceral Abstractions." GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies 21, no. 1 (2015): 33-63. muse.jhu.edu/article/566788.